Australian Pine
(Casuarina spp.)

Origin:

Australia and Southeast Asia

Introduction to Florida:

Brought in late 1800s for ditch and canal stabilization, shade, and lumber

Stage on Invasion Curve:

Long-term management

Description

Australian pine is a deciduous tree that looks like a soft, wispy pine and grows to more than 100 feet tall. It has thin branchlets resembling pine needles, and tiny brown flowers. The reddish-brown bark is brittle and peels. Fruits are tiny nutlets contained in small, round, cone-like structures, 3/4 inches long.

Many people admire Australian pines and appreciate the shade they provide. However, the ecological harm and storm damage they cause overshadow their value as a shade tree.

Impacts

Australian pines grow fast and form dense stands, shading out native plants that need sunlight to grow. Their shallow roots do not trap sand as native dune plants do, so they can increase beach erosion. They take over the nesting areas of endangered sea turtles and threatened American crocodiles. Fewer bird species nest in or eat from Australian pine compared to native trees. Australian pines frequently blow over during high winds, causing major damage during storm season.

Where to Find Them

Australian pines are a common sight along shorelines and in parks and natural areas throughout southern and central Florida. They are found in open, coastal habitats including sand beaches, rocky coasts, and sand dunes.

Distribution Maps

What You Can Do

  • If you have Australian pine on your property:
    • Remove seedlings by hand pulling or herbicide treatment
    • Use basal bark treatment with herbicide for trees under 8 inches in diameter
    • Use cut stump treatment for large trees that may fall and damage personal property
    • Plant native tree species instead, such as sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera), sea hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus), or buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus)
  • Report Australian pine in natural areas on IveGot1.org or using the IveGot1 reporting app.

More Information

Publications

Websites

Everglades CISMA Signatories